Upsc mains answer writing series called master 2017 is an everyday series & MASTER CRUX is associated with that daily initiative. This is not MODEL ANSWER or ANSWER. This is just to understand question demands and way of approach. It may not be in word limit. just to revise or recollect missed points if any.

General Studies -01

Syllabus area:Post-Independence (consolidation and reorganisation within country)

Q1: Analyze the circumstances that led to Tashkent Agreement in 1966. Discuss the highlights of the agreement. (200 words)

Tashkent agreement  signed on 10 January 1966 was a cease fire and peace deal between india & paksitan that formally concluded india pak war of 1965 and this deal was brokered by erstwhile USSR.War provoked by Operation Grand Slam & operation Gibraltar, to infiltrate insurgents in Kashmir by Pakistan was ended with Tashkent agreement.


-Indian army retaliated from both east and west front & reached near lahore.

-It was aimed at peace, rather than having conclusive answers to the everlasting problem of Kashmir.

-There was  a great possibility that no country would have won the war and a stalemate situation like Korean war might have been a natural outcome in the end.

– There was a possibility of participation from china in war.

-Prolonged war would have further devastated economy, high inflation, famine and death.

-Overall south Asia would have become more fragmented.

Highlights of war

-Both sides will withdraw force to pre conflict area.

-Restore normal and peaceful relation between India and Pakistan

-Reaffirmation from both the sides that under UN charter through peaceful means the existing issues will be solved.

-Non-interference in the internal matters.

-If there are matters of direct concern then a meeting at the highest level will be called and they will be discussed.

1965 war was inconclusive as it restored the position back to pre-war conditions. India gained almost nothing apart from not falling a prey to the world politics by major powers.The agreement was a strategic win for India as Kashmir territories retained but it could be a permanent solution. Quest for military advantage remained and lead to another war in 1971.


General Studies -02

Syllabus area: International relations; india & its neighborhood relations.

Q2: The principal international challenge for India in the coming years has to be coping with China’s rise and growing assertiveness . Critically comment. (200 words)

China in recent years has itself established itself as a regional hegemon trying to rewrite the rules of international engagements. Pentagon report about string of pearls have security implications on india. The recent complex political turmoils raised questions about the future relationship.

why India should worry about china?:

1) NSG Issue – .China opposed the bid of India’s entry to NSG which is frustrating for India.

2) CPEC – It is road link infrastructure that will connect Gwadar port of pakistan to Kashgar in China.India raises problem to this because the route passes through PoK (Gilgit Baltistan), without India’s consent.

3) Border dispute- Even though several territorial land pockets of LAC have come under dispute, the two main unresolved issues remain Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh.

4)Competition- China is the lone super power competitor with india in asian region.Dumping of china which affects india’s local market & anti dumping duty proposal by india also worsen the scenario.

5) Water issue – 4 rivers flows to India through China . China is building number of water projects including dam on Brahmaputra. This is threatening India for water problems in North-East.

6) Other issues – The attempt of domination in South china sea creates navigation troubles ,There are some issue of china with Dalai Lama who stays in India and India didn’t like the stand of China on Masoor Azhar’s Issue; China’s support to PAK is also a matter of concern.
PRINCIPAL CONCERNS other than CHINA internationally.

1) Economic interdependence- Two leading economies can’t withstand without mutual co-operation. India has $ 60 billion trade deficit with china and china don’t want to lose one of it’s biggest market.

2) panchaseel – The Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence including Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs exists.

2) Globalisation – Both countries are against protectionism and want the world to be open market.

3) Paris Climate Agreement – India and China are the two fastest growing economies and working towards climate change issue and sustainable development.

4) Relations- India keeps strong & stable relation with common interest in balancing  chinas impact with countries like south korea,Japan,ASEAN ..etc

5) FDI from China – China has great capital and they need a secure market to invest and India can be prove to be a perfect destination.

6) Terrorism – Both the countries are against terrorism and can work together to eradicate it .

So, Indias policy should be to co-operate with china, whenever possible for mutual progress and healthy competition whenever necessary.

General Studies -03

Syllabus area:Indian economy;Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

Q3 : GST is certainly an economic landmark, but it’s also a work in progress .Discuss the long-term benefits & immediate short term obstacles. (200 words)

Good and service tax is considered as the biggest tax reform in the independent india rolled out on june 30 midnight.The implementation from july 1 have lot of positive hopes as well as confusions.


1.Cascading effect- Reducing cascading effect & thus reducing costs of goods and services.

2.Single market- This will avoid conflicts in check posts & creates transparency.

3.Ease of doing business- One tax one market attracts more investments

4.Reduction in complaints – Since the slabs are defined & most of the process are automated.

5.Evading tax- This major issue can be avoided with input credit feature.

6.Motive- This will change business motive from TAX oriented to transaction oriented approach.


1. Untested platform- This is not yet tested for efficiency and accuracy which created ambiguity.

2.Tax slabs – This makes confusion & misinterpretations among ordinary people.

3. Claus – Clarity is missing with many claus like anti profiteering .

4.Concern of state government – Revenue sharing is a concern of states when trade happens between 3 or more states.

5. Poor awareness- Eventhough helpline is provided things like filing returns,reports are confusing.

6.Benefit to customer – Even though this is done for a noble cause; the delivery of benefit to customer is not viisble.

In short,GST is a revolution with positive impact to customers & country in the long run,Eventhough there are few confusion and ambiguities in short term.

General Studies -04

Syllabus area: Ethics case studies

 Q4: As a DM of a home district of serving Chief Minister, you find out that a huge land scam has taken place in which close relatives of the Chief Minister are involved. The scam which you have unearthed has caused lots of financial loss to the state’s exchequer. You have been recently married to a daughter of an MLA who is known as staunch political enemy of the CM.

While you are investigating the matter for further proofs, before you make this issue public, the CM comes to know about this. He threatens you with dire consequences if you do not close the file and bury the matter silently. He threatens you with false criminal cases and CBI investigation in case you do not budge. Unfortunately, a case is pending against you regarding misuse of treasury funds, in which you haven’t done anything wrong. This case can bereopened and used against you. However, if you stop investigation, he has assured you that you will be given a plum post in the capital.

Identify which course of action are available to you. Examine each action’s merits and demerits. Finally, explain which course of action would you follow and why?

Model Answer:

In this situation, the following options are available:

1. Acting as per the directions of the CM and close the file in return for the plum job and to avoid investigation.

2. Carry on with the investigation to find substantiate proofs to the issue which caused loss to the exchequer. Upholding the law and constitution to which i owe my allegiance.
3. Use my father­in­law’s position to expose the current CM and share the gain of this expose with my father ­in ­law.

4. Report the matter in media anonymously.
Option 1:
1. Plum post will be rewarded
2. Will be freed from the threat of CM and career will be safe
1. Loss to the state exchequer and ultimate sufferer would be public 2. Subversion of constitutionally mandated duty for the personal benefit
3. public image and trust will be lost


1. upholding personal integrity,objectivity, honesty, spirit of civil service
2. unearthing such act would cause deleterious effect on others who may be indulged in similar other activities 3. bringing such issue before the public will improve trust and confidence between state machinery and public. 4. Send a strong message to the political class that honest civil servant would not succumb to their pressure tactics.
1. Lot of personal hardship caused in the process including false CBI inquiry.
2. Putting life and family in jeopardy (Similarly merits and demerits in Option 3 and Option 4).
Course of action to be followed:

I would choose option 2.
Investigation would be carried out as usual. Meanwhile CM should be told politely but firmly that I am performing my constitutionally mandated duties and I have no option to Go. There is a possibility that CM’s party workers would spread message that MLA is playing vendetta politics through his in ­law. So sound proofs before the public are necessary to avoid any backfire. If CM, in the meanwhile starts any CBI investigation on my any past acts, I would welcome that as I have not done anything wrong. Even Government suspends, I would cooperate with the enquiry to prove my innocence. If necessary I would move to court for protection against harassment. But in no case, I would close the file to avoid any personal hardship to my career and my family as it would amount to compromising on my values and ethics which civil service holds.