Constitution of India and Civil Rights

PREAMBLE TO THE CONSTITUTION.

The Indian Constitution starts with the preamble which outlines the main objectives of the Constitution. It reads:
” WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN, SOCIALIST, SECULAR, DEMOCRATIC, REPUBLIC and to secure all its citizens.”
JUSTICE, social economic and political.
LIBERTY, of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship.
EQUALITY, of status and of opportunity, and to promote among them all.
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and unity and integrity of the nation.
IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY, this twenty sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, “ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES HIS CONSTITUTION “.
Idea of preamble borrowed from Constitution of US.
The words ‘SOCIALIST’, ‘SECULAR’ and ‘UNITY’ & ‘INTEGRITY’ were added by the 42nd Amendment in 1976.Preamble is not justifiable

BORROWED FEATURES OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION.

From U.K.
  • Nominal Head – President (like Queen)
  • Cabinet System of Ministers
  • Post of PM
  • Parliamentary Type of Govt.
  • Bicameral Parliament
  • Lower House more powerful
  • Council of Ministers responsible to Lowe House
  • Speaker in Lok Sabha
From U.S.
  • Written Constitution
  • Executive head of state known as President and his being the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces
  • Vice- President as the ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha
  • Fundamental Rights
  • Supreme Court
  • Provision of States
  • Independence of Judiciary and judicial review
  • Preamble
  • Removal of Supreme court and High court Judges
From USSR
  • Fundamental Duties
  • Five year Plan
From AUSTRALIA
  • Concurrent list
  • Language of the preamble
  • Provision regarding trade, commerce and intercourse
From JAPAN
  • Law on which the Supreme Court function
From WEIMARCONSTITUION OFGERMANY
  • Suspension of Fundamental Rights during the emergency
From CANADA
  • Scheme of federation with a strong centre
  • Distribution of powers between centre and the states and placing. Residuary Powers with the centre
From IRELAND
  • Concept of Directive Principles of States Policy(Irelandborrowed it from SPAIN)
  • Method of election of President
  • Nomination of members in the Rajya Sabha by the President
Prelims 2018 at 70% discount

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