The progress of East india company from the role of a trader to imperial ruler is sorted in time line for better analysis.
How a trading corporation became an imperial ruler?
When the East India Company first visited the Mughal court in the early 17th century, it was as supplicants attempting to negotiate favorable trading relations with Akbar’s successor, Emperor Jehangir. The company had initially planned to try and force their way into the lucrative spice markets of south-east Asia, but found this trade was already dominated by the Dutch. After EIC merchants were massacred at Amboyna (in present day Indonesia) in 1623, the company increasingly turned their attention to India.
|1660||British East India Company chartered by the Crown. A private company devoted to profitable trade.|
|1757||Robert Clive, a director of the East Indian Company, defeats the Mughal Army. The company established its hold on Calcutta and the Benghal region. It continues to expand its power thereafter through the diplomatic and military annexations of local principalities and through indirect rule through collaborating Indian princes.|
|1772||A representative of the British East India Company becomes an official of the Mughal Empire, with rights to collect taxes, using exisitng Indian collectors, but keeping the revenue. Gradually this delegated authority was used by the Company to increase its role in provincial administration and justice.|
|1780s-1830s||Humanitarian reform initiatives launched from England. Reforms inspired by the Enlightenment and to be carried out by the British government and civil service as well as by private citizens serving as missionaries. One could call this a kind of “Enlightened Despotism.”
|1805-1840||By 1805, the British East India Company (British East India Company) was the most powerful, single territorial power in the Indian subcontinent. By 1840, the BEI had extensive influence beyond “British India” via its influence over princes ruling in other parts of the subcontinent.|
|1857||The Indian Mutiny. Indian soldiers in the BEI army rise in revolt and threaten the continued control of the BEI in northern India. After the eventual defeat of the revolt, the BEI is dissolved and Parliament in London takes over the governing of all of British Indian.|
|1860s-1880s||A new wave of reform unfolds, in part to prevent future revolts and to secure the loyalties of Indian elites, through education, service in the British civil service, and lucrative arragnements with large Indian landowners. An effort to expand education is launched around 1880, but includes support for expanded schooling in English as well as schooling in Hindu and Muslem institutions. By far the largest numbers of children drawn into this effort were attending Hindu and Muslem schools.|
|1883||Ilbert Bill, introduced by British Indian Viceroy Ripon to extend the authority of Anglophone Indian magistrates to cover cases involving Europeans, fails to pass in Parliament.|
|1885||The foundation of the Indian National Congress Party, made up of Indian elites who worked to gain an independent role for their countrymen in British India and eventually for full self-government.|